Transforming Health Care Through Evidence and Collaboration
Transforming Health Care Through Evidence and Collaboration
The NIHCM Foundation is a nonprofit, nonpartisan organization dedicated to improving the effectiveness, efficiency and quality of America's health care system.
  • Data Insights

    Mental illness is increasingly common among young people but many are not receiving the treatment that they need. This Data Insights explores current trends in youth mental health and opportunities to improve outcomes.

    Learn More
  • Grants

    NIHCM Foundation has awarded 14 grants for health care journalism including investigative reporting and educational opportunities for reporters.

    Press Release All Journalism Grantees
  • Awards

    NIHCM Foundation is pleased to welcome Dr. Karen DeSalvo, Dr. Aaron E. Carroll and Eliza Barclay to the independent judges panel of the NIHCM Awards. All three bring considerable expertise to the prestigious panel.

    Press Release Judges Panels The NIHCM Awards
  • Grants

    NIHCM Foundation has awarded over $500,000 in grants to support nine investigator-initiated research studies.

    Press Release All Research Grantees
  • Briefing

    NIHCM Foundation led a briefing on Capitol Hill to discuss social determinants of health and the opioid crisis with Founding President and CEO Nancy Chockley, former CMS Administrator Don Berwick, Curtis Barnett of Arkansas Blue Cross Blue Shield, Craig Samitt of Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Minnesota, and Grant Baldwin from the CDC.

    Press Release Watch the Video
  • Advisory Board

    NIHCM Foundation is pleased to welcome Dr. Scott Gottlieb, Sherry Glied, PhD, and Katherine Baicker, PhD, to its distinguished Advisory Board. Their ideas and insights will advance NIHCM's mission to improve health care for millions of Americans.

    Press Release Advisory Board
  • News

    NIHCM welcomed Secretary Azar to a meeting in March to discuss efforts by the Department of Health and Human Services to transform health care by lowering costs and improving value for patients.

  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
  • 6
  • 7

Events

February 24, 2020
Teen-Mental-Health-webinar-graphic

This webinar explored cross-sector strategies to prevent teen substance and suicide, as well as the role of school-based health services in providing behavioral health care.

January 27, 2020
SDOH-webinar-graphic-012720

This webinar explored public and private sector efforts to improve health outcomes by addressing social determinants of health.

In the News

February 2020
Population Health Spotlight
newsletter-alcohol-deaths-v2

The Opioid Crisis at a Glance

January 2018


Methods

Panel 1

Data on opioid-related emergency room visits and inpatient stays were derived from the national quarterly counts extracted from HCUP Fast Stats, Opioid-Related Hospital Use, Show Data Export Options. This file reflects data from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) and National Inpatient Sample (NIS) of the Hospital Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). The data were last updated in December 2017 to include the most current available data (for 2015).

Emergency department (ED) visits are defined as ED encounters that do not result in a hospital admission to the same hospital (i.e., treat-and-release ED visits). ED patients who continue on to an admission to the same hospital are counted with the inpatient stays.

In all cases, the visit or stay is considered to be opioid related if any of the listed diagnosis codes on the record contain any of the following ICD-9-CM codes: 304.00-304.02 (opioid type dependence – unspecified, continuous, episodic); 304.70-304.72 (combinations of opioid type drug with any other drug dependence – unspecified, continuous, episodic); 305.50-305.52 (opioid abuse – unspecified, continuous, episodic); 965.00-965.02, 965.09, 970.1 [poisoning by opium (alkaloids) unspecified, heroin, methadone, other opiates and related narcotics, opiate antagonists]; E850.0-E850.2 (accidental poisoning by heroin, methadone, other opiates and related narcotics); or E935.0-E935.2, E940.1 (heroin, methadone, other opiates and related narcotics, opiate antagonists causing adverse effects in therapeutic use).

There were 273,500 ED visits in 2006 and 667,500 ED visits in 2015 (a 144 percent increase to 76.2 visits per hour in 2015). There were 489,400 inpatient stays in 2006 and 802,900 inpatient stays in 2015 (a 64 percent increase to 91.7 admissions per hour in 2015).

Panels 2-5

Data on opioid overdose deaths were derived from the multiple cause-of-death files of the Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) data system maintained by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The information was last updated in December 2017 to reflect data through 2016.

Deaths were identified as due to an opioid overdose if the ICD-10 code for the underlying cause of death was X40-X44 (accidental poisoning), X60-X64 (intentional self-poisoning) or Y10-14 (poisoning of undetermined intent) and if any of the multiple cause of death codes indicated that the type of substance involved in the poisoning was T40.1 (heroin), T40.2 (natural and semi-synthetic opioids), T40.3 (methadone) or T40.4 (synthetic opioids other than methadone). Because a single death may involve multiple substances, summing across the number of deaths involving each substance will overestimate the number of opioid-related overdoses. Following the classification scheme adopted by the CDC, methadone and natural and semi-synthetic opioids (e.g., oxycodone and hydrocodone) were grouped into a single category encompassing commonly prescribed opioids. Synthetic opioids other than methadone include substances such as tramadol and fentanyl (both pharmaceutically manufactured and illicitly manufactured).

Panel 2

In 2016, there were 40,704 overdose deaths involving one or more of the opioids described above, or 4.6 such deaths every hour.

Panel 3

Of these deaths in 2016, 15,433 involved heroin, 19,390 involved synthetic opioids other than methadone, and 17,065 involved commonly prescribed opioids (some deaths were classified into more than one category). Comparable figures for the years 2001, 2006 and 2011 were, respectively:

  • for heroin – 1,777; 2,082; and 4,383
  • for synthetic opioids – 956; 2,701; and 2,662
  • for commonly prescribed opioids – 4,762; 11,567; and 15,115

Panel 4

In 2016, 5,036 (32.6 percent) of all overdose deaths involving heroin and 6,084 (31.4 percent) of all overdose deaths involving synthetic opioids occurred among individuals aged from 25 to 34, whereas 4,307 (25.2 percent) of all overdose deaths involving commonly prescribed opioids occurred for individuals aged 45 to 54.

Panel 5

In 2016, 27,512 (67.6 percent) of the 40,704 opioid-related deaths occurred among men.

Panel 6

Data on state laws were derived from the Prescription Drug Abuse Policy System. Question 9.1 in the section on Naloxone Overdose Prevention Laws was used to determine which states used standing orders to permit pharmacists to dispense or distribute naloxone without a patient-specific prescription from another medical professional. Question 4 in the Prescription Drug Monitoring Program (PDMP) Reporting and Authorized Use section was used to determine which states required prescribers to check the PDMP database before prescribing controlled substances.

Deaths related to opioids have risen dramatically in just a few years and increasingly involve heroin and synthetic opioids like fentanyl.

Events

February 24, 2020
Teen-Mental-Health-webinar-graphic

This webinar explored cross-sector strategies to prevent teen substance and suicide, as well as the role of school-based health services in providing behavioral health care.

January 27, 2020
SDOH-webinar-graphic-012720

This webinar explored public and private sector efforts to improve health outcomes by addressing social determinants of health.

In the News

February 2020
Population Health Spotlight
newsletter-alcohol-deaths-v2

Grants

Journalism GrantsJournalism Grant Program

NIHCM has announced its 2019 journalism grantees. We will begin accepting Letters of Inquiry for the 2020-2021 funding cycle in late spring 2020.

Read More


NYTUpshotLogo

Investigator-Initiated Research Grant Program

NIHCM has announced its 2019 research grantees. We will begin accepting Letters of Inquiry for the 2020-2021 funding cycle in late spring 2020.

Read More

Awards

The 26th Annual Research and Journalism Awards

Winners Announcment 2018 1

We are no longer accepting entries for this year's awards cycle. Winners and finalists will be recognized at a dinner in Washington, D.C., in May 2020.

Learn More