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HIV in the United States

Published on: September 28, 2022.


1 in 8 people

with HIV do not know they have it

Citations
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HIV data for 2020 was heavily impact by the COVID-19 pandemic. Access to HIV testing, care-related services, and case surveillance activities in state and local jurisdictions were all affected. For these reasons most data in this infographic come from 2019 data.

HIV Definition: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, About HIV, June 2022

1.2 million people in the US have HIV: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV Surveillance Report, 2019; vol.32., May 2021

34,800 new infections: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV Surveillance Report, 2019; vol.32., May 2021

13% of people with HIV don't know they have it: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV Surveillance Report, 2019; vol.32., May 2021

Symptoms | Are there symptoms of HIV?

Symptoms: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, About HIV, June 2022

  • Fever, Sore throat, Swollen lymph nodes, Rash, Muscle aches, Night sweats, Mouth ulcers, Chills, Fatigue

Many people have no symptoms: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, About HIV, June 2022

These symptoms don't necessarily mean HIV: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, About HIV, June 2022

Some people have no symptoms: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, About HIV, June 2022

Stages | What are the stages of HIV?

What are the stages of HIV: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, About HIV, June 2022

  • Stage 1 - Acute HIV infection

  • Stage 2 - Chronic HIV infection

  • Stage 3 - AIDS

How | How is HIV passed from one person to another?

Most people get HIV through anal or vaginal sex, or sharing needles: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Transmission: Ways HIV can be transmitted, March 2022

Body fluids that transmit HIV: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Transmission: Body fluids that transmit HIV, April 2021

Out of the 34,800 new HIV cases: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV Surveillance Report, 2019; vol.32., May 2021

  • 70% among gay and bisexual me (NOTE: Including 4% who report male-to-male sexual contact(MMSC) and injection drug use(IDU))
  • 23% among heterosexuals (NOTE: Including 3% who report injection drug use(IDU))

  • 7% among people who inject drugs

Who | Who is at greatest risk of getting HIV?

HIV can affect anyone: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, HIV by Group, April 2022

  • Gay and bisexual men

  • Injection drug users

  • Sex workers

  • Transgendered individuals

  • Black and Latino individuals

New HIV diagnoses among gay and bisexual men by race/ethnicity: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV Surveillance Report, 2019; vol.32., May 2021

HIV diagnoses trends among gay and bisexual men overall: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV Surveillance Report, 2019; vol.32., May 2021

  • 17% decrease among White men

  • 31% increase for American Indian/Alaska Natives

  • No increase or decrease for Black/African American and Hispanic/Latino men

Black Woman and HIV: Ojikutu BO, Mayer K. HIV Prevention Among Black Women in the US—Time for Multimodal Integrated Strategies. JAMA Netw Open. April 2021;4(4):e215356

New HIV diagnoses among heterosexual men & women by race and ethnicity: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV Surveillance Report, 2019; vol.32., May 2021

12% of the United States population identifies as Black: Kaiser Family Foundation, Black Americans and HIV/AIDS: The Basics, 2020

Regions | Are some regions of the US more impacted by HIV?

Rates of new HIV diagnoses in the US by region in 2020: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV Surveillance Report, 2019; vol.33., May 2022

HIV is largely an urban disease: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV Surveillance Report, 2019; vol.33., May 2022

51% of new HIV diagnoses were in the South: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV Surveillance Report, 2019; vol.33., May 2022

Prevention | What can be done to help prevent HIV transmission?

There is currently no effective cure to HIV: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, About HIV, June 2022

How can a person reduce their risk of getting HIV?

How can a person reduce their risk of getting HIV: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Protect Yourself During Sex, May 2022

  • Get tested for HIV

  • Use a condom

  • Test and treat STDs

  • Talk about using PrEP

How can a person reduce their risk of getting HIV: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Protect Yourself if You Use Inject Drugs, April 2022

  • Use sterile needles

How can a person who is HIV positive prevent passing HIV to others?

How can a person who is HIV positive prevent passing HIV to others: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Protect Others if You Have HIV, May 2022

  • Take HIV medicines daily

  • Other steps to take

Prep Uptake: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Core indicators for monitoring the Ending the HIV Epidemic initiative (preliminary data): National HIV Surveillance System data reported through June 2021; and preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) data reported through March 2021. HIV Surveillance Data Tables 2021

How can society, governments, and organizations help prevent HIV?

How can society, governments, and organizations help prevent HIV: Dean HD, Fenton KA. Addressing social determinants of health in the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS, viral hepatitis, sexually transmitted infections, and tuberculosis. Public Health Rep. 2010

  • Improve economic disparities

  • Improve education around HIV and STDs

  • Reduce stigma

  • Improve access to transportation

Improving access to housing: Center for HIV Identification, Prevention and Treatment Services and Center for Strengthening Youth Prevention Paradigms. HIV prevention at the structural level: the role of social determinants of health and HIV. Los Angeles, CA; 2012.

Integration of care, & Insurance: Timothy W Menza, Lindsay K Hixson, Lauren Lipira, Linda Drach, Social Determinants of Health and Care Outcomes Among People With HIV in the United States, Open Forum Infectious Diseases, Volume 8, Issue 7, July 2021

Access to Insurance: Timothy W Menza, Lindsay K Hixson, Lauren Lipira, Linda Drach, Social Determinants of Health and Care Outcomes Among People With HIV in the United States, Open Forum Infectious Diseases, Volume 8, Issue 7, July 2021

Resources
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Learn about HIV: Explore online resources and information at HIV.gov:

You can find a testing site near you: using CDC’s HIV prevention services locator. You can also buy an HIV self-test at a pharmacy or online.

Find out if you’re eligible for the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program: If you do not have health insurance or money to pay for health services, you might qualify for medical care and other essential support services.

Find your state HIV/AIDS toll-free hotline: Connect with agencies that can help determine what services you are eligible for and help you get them.

Search for HIV care specialists: Find HIV providers who are members of the American Academy of HIV Medicine.

More resources: CDC Resources for people with HIV

About this Data Insights

Approximately 1.2 million people in the United States are living with HIV, and an estimated 13% of them do not know they are infected. HIV can affect anyone regardless of sexual orientation, race, ethnicity, gender, age, or where they live. In the U.S., Black, Hispanic/Latino, and American Indian and Alaska Native populations have higher rates of new HIV infections and HIV diagnoses, and lower rates of PrEP and ART preventive treatment awareness compared to their White peers. HIV-related stigma is one of the top factors that contributes to poor uptake of prevention tools and treatments. Despite the advancements in HIV prevention and treatment, not everyone is benefiting equally.

This infographic explores strategies to reduce new HIV diagnoses and support stigma reduction in the hopes that it could result in increased initiation of, and adherence to, PrEP or ART to prevent new infections and reduce HIV transmission.


Need a Test, Find a Test

You can find an HIV testing site near you using CDC’s HIV prevention services locator.


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